The Cham of Cambodia are a syncretic religious minority who identify as Muslim, have their own language and religious texts. The Cham originated in what is now Vietnam and migrated to the territory of Cambodia several hundred years ago. During the Khmer Rouge, the Cham were targeted for genocide and many were killed or tortured. Nowadays, a small number of traditional Cham villages continue to practice their unusual religious rites, including spirit ceremonies, Friday prayers and special celebrations for Mohammed’s birthday. As peaceful, welcoming people whose religious practice is flexible, they are vulnerable to all kinds of influences (Orthodox Islam, Christianity, modernization) which are threatening the future existence of their ancient culture and unique traditions.